DETAILED ITINERARY - AMAZON BIRDS
Birds of Peru Amazon Habitat Tinamous.:
LARGE FOREST TINAMOUS
Tinamous are terrestrial and cryptically colored. Superficially resemble tailless quail but usually forage singly or as adult (male) with 1 or 2 juveniles. Heard much more often than are seen. Prefer to escape on foot; when flushed, explosively rocket away before dropping quickly into cover. Tinamus roost in trees, all other species on the ground. Forest species primarily eat fallen fruit. Nest on the ground; eggs are glazed and usually some shade of blue, olive, or purplish brown. All species on plate are large tinamous of humid forest interior.
BLACK TINAMOU Tinamus osgoodi * 40–46 cm (15⁄4–18 in) Poorly known. Rare to locally fairly common in humid montane forest, 900–1650 m, on east slope 13 of southern Andes. Large, very dark; note restricted distribution. Gray Tinamou is larger and paler with white freckling on sides of head and throat; elevation range of Gray also does not extend as high.
VOICE Song, generally crepuscular, a descending deep whistle, similar to first note of song of White-throated Tinamou. Co, E
GRAY TINAMOU Tinamus tao * 43–46 cm (17–18 in) Uncommon but widespread, mainly in humid montane forest along east slope of Andes up to 1400 m; 2 locally in terra firme of Amazonia in southeast, especially in hilly terrain. Distinctive combination of large size, blackish head with white freckling behind eyes and on throat, and grayish overall plumage. In south cf. Black Tinamou.
VOICE Song, generally crepuscular and given at long intervals, is a low, even “whoo.” Also a single quavering whistle similar to that of Great Tinamou, but not in a series. Co, E, Br, Bo
GREAT TINAMOU Tinamus major * 38–43 cm (15–17 in) Fairly common throughout Amazonia and (perhaps in the absence of other Tinamus) locally in 3 foothills to 800 m; the most widespread large forest tinamou. Primarily in low-lying, seasonally flooded forest (including varzea in north); also in tall second growth.
Note large size, distinctly rufescent head, and unspotted upperparts. Replaced by White-throated Tinamou in terra firme.
VOICE Song, generally crepuscular, a series of rising then falling, quavering whistles, normally in series of 4. Has “sawing” rhythm. Co, E, Br, Bo
WHITE-THROATED TINAMOU Tinamus guttatus 33–36 cm (13–14 in) Fairly common and widespread in eastern lowlands, also locally to 1100 m; the characteristic large 4 tinamou of terra firme, which it shares with the smaller Variegated Tinamou. Less numerous along edges of seasonally flooded forest. Distinguished from other lowland tinamous by large size and conspicuous buff spotting on back and wing coverts.
VOICE Song is 2 notes with about a 1- to 2-secpause between: “whooooooo… hoo,” the first note often dipping in pitch, the second barely rising. Co, E, Br, Bo
HIGHLAND TINAMOU Nothocercus bonapartei * 35.5–38 cm (14–15 in) Rare to uncommon, in humid montane forest, 1800–2100 m, on east slope of Andes north and west 5 of the Marañón. Overlaps with few other species: Tawny-breasted Tinamou is found at higher elevations; also note differences in crown and throat color.
VOICE Song, usually given in the morning, is a series of rising yelps: “B’yirr!” Co, E
TAWNY-BREASTED TINAMOU Nothocercus julius 35.5–38 cm (14–15 in) Poorly known and perhaps local (or overlooked?). Found in humid montane forest on east slope of 6 Andes at 2500–3000 m; the only forest tinamou of these elevations. Also note reddish crown and white throat.
VOICE Song a long series of burry, slightly descending “brreew” notes, closely spaced. Co, E 7
HOODED TINAMOU Nothocercus nigrocapillus * 33 cm (13 in) Fairly common in humid montane forest along east slope of Andes, 1300–2500 m (locally to 3200 m), south of range of Highland Tinamou. May concentrate in areas where bamboo (Chusquea) is seeding, when may become quite vocal. Northern cadwaladeri (Amazonas and San Martín) more reddish than central and southern nigrocapillus. Similar to Tawny-breasted Tinamou of higher elevations, but note differences in crown and throat color. Cf. other terrestrial forest species (Brown Tinamou, Rufous-breasted and Stripe-faced Wood-Quail, and White-throated Quail-Dove), all of which are smaller.
VOICE Song a series of burry, rising-falling “brreew” or “bwow” notes, averaging about 1 note per 10 sec. Bo
WIDESPREAD CRYPTURELLUS TINAMOUS
Crypturellus are small to medium-sized tinamous; species on this plate occupy humid forest or forest edges
in eastern Peru.
CINEREOUS TINAMOU Crypturellus cinereus 30–30.5 cm (11 ⁄4–12 in) Common and widespread, locally up to 1000 m, in dense understory of low-lying forest, such as 13 seasonally flooded forest and edges of swampy forest; also seasonally on larger river islands in north.
Darkest, most uniformly colored medium-sized tinamou of Amazonia.
VOICE Song an even, clear whistle, repeated at regular intervals of 5 sec or more. Easily imitated; characteristic sound of riverine Amazonia. Co, E, Br, Bo
LITTLE TINAMOU Crypturellus soui * 21.5–23 cm (8⁄2–9 in) Fairly common and widespread in east, up to 1350 m, in forest (especially near rivers and streams) 21 and tall second growth; prefers dense undergrowth. Also rare in evergreen forest in Tumbes below 750 m. Plumage variable. Females generally brighter than males. Most richly colored are female nigriceps (north of the Amazon, also south of Marañón in San Martín). Male nigriceps, and both sexes of inconspicuus (rest of Amazonia) and harterti (Tumbes), are drabber. Note small size, unpatterned upperparts.
VOICE Song, generally crepuscular, a series of quavering whistles raising in pitch and accelerating in pace. Daytime call a single quavering note rising and then quickly dropping in pitch: “heeEE’E’u’u’u’u’u’u.” Reminiscent of Great Tinamou but slightly higher pitched, and song phrases never in pairs. Also a clear rising whistle. Co, E, Br, Bo
BROWN TINAMOU Crypturellus obsoletus * 25.5 cm (10 in) Fairly common in humid montane forest along east slope of Andes, 900–2500 m, usually in dense 3 understory. Also very local at lower elevations in central and southern Peru, especially in hilly terrain. Geographic variation and taxonomy not well understood. Andean populations generally darker, more richly colored; populations at lower elevations paler and buffier. Similar to Little Tinamou, but primarily Andean (not Amazonian); also larger with gray throat. See also Hooded Tinamou.
VOICE Song a long series of ringing phrases rising in pitch and accelerating in pace until near the end, when voice “cracks” and notes become cleaner whistles: “Prr… prr… prr prr prr, prr, prr-prr-prr-prr’prr’pi’pi’pi?” Daytime call, similar in quality to song, is a shorter phrase of rising notes: “Prrrr, prr-prree?” Voice in San Martín clearer, less strident. Co, E, Br, Bo
UNDULATED TINAMOU Crypturellus undulatus * 25.5–26.5 cm (10–10 ⁄2 in) Common in floodplain forest (including edges of varzea); also regularly in second growth and forest 4 edge with dense understory near low-lying forest, and seasonally (mainly Aug–Mar) on river islands in north. Geographically variable: relatively plain in northern and central Peru (yapura) but regularly barred in southeast (undulatus).
VOICE Song, often given throughout day, is 3 or 4 deep, whistled notes, the last rising: “whooo… whoo-whoo?” (or “com-pra pan?”). Characteristic sound of riverine Amazonia. Co, E, Br, Bo
VARIEGATED TINAMOU Crypturellus variegatus 25.5–26.5 cm (10–10⁄2 in) Fairly common and widespread, locally up to 950 m. The characteristic small tinamou of terra firme 5 (compare to larger White-throated Tinamou). Richly colored, with strongly barred upperparts.
Distinguished from brighter examples of Bartlett’s Tinamou by black crown and sides of head, stronger barring, slightly larger size, and longer bill. Bartlett’s also is more prevalent in low-lying forest.
VOICE Song, often given throughout day, but most often at dusk, long, clear whistle followed by a long pause, then a rising and accelerating series of quavering whistles: “whooooo….. whoo wrrrwrrrr-wrrrr-wrrr-wrr-wrr-wrr-wi?” Co, E, Br, Bo 6
BARTLETT’S TINAMOU Crypturellus bartletti 23–24 cm (9–91⁄2 in) Fairly common and widespread in eastern lowlands. Most common in seasonally flooded forest, less commonly found along streams in terra firme. Highly variable in color, even within a single population; some birds relatively dull and brown, whereas others relatively bright tawny color. Always barred on back and wing coverts. Cf. Variegated Tinamou.
VOICE Song, given most often at night, dawn, and dusk, an accelerating, rising series of pure, fairly flat whistles, occasionally changing pace and pitch more variably. Similar to Cinereous Tinamou but rarely maintains an even pace for long, and often pauses between bouts. At times introductory notes of song quaver and fall a little in pitch, reminiscent of Little Tinamou, but usually accelerate into typical song. E, Br, Bo
RANGE-RESTRICTED CRYPTURELLUS TINAMOUS
Species on this plate are Crypturellus that are geographically restricted, rare, or both.
GRAY-LEGGED TINAMOU Crypturellus duidae 28.5–31 cm (11–12 ⁄4 in) Uncommon to locally fairly common, but restricted to varillal forests north of Amazon. Female 11 more strongly barred than male, especially on wing coverts. Very richly colored. Superficially similar to Variegated Tinamou, but note rufous-brown (not blackish) crown and sides of head; upperparts also not as uniformly barred as in Variegated.
VOICE Song a single rising, slightly quavering whistle lasting about 3 sec: “whoo’ooo’ooee?” Co, Br
BLACK-CAPPED TINAMOU Crypturellus atrocapillus * 28–31 cm (11–12⁄4 in) Locally common in dense second growth and in riverine and disturbed forests, in south up to 1000 m2 in Andean foothills. Sexually dimorphic; female more prominently barred above, especially on lower back and wing coverts. Superficially similar to Variegated Tinamou, but note contrast between cinnamon throat and belly, and dark gray chest; also different habitat.
VOICE Song, often given throughout the day, is an explosive “QUEEWAH!” Br, Bo
BARRED TINAMOU Crypturellus casiquiare 25.5–27 cm (10–10 ⁄2 in) Poorly known. Local and apparently rare in varillal forests on Río Tigre and possibly also on upper 31 Río Nanay. Note small size, rufous crown and sides of the head, and contrast between gray breast and belly and brown, boldly barred upperparts.
VOICE Song an accelerating-decelerating series of clear whistles, the fastest notes also the highest pitched, averaging about 1 note/sec for most of song. Co, Br
BRAZILIAN TINAMOU Crypturellus strigulosus 27–29 cm (101 ⁄2 –11⁄2 in) Poorly known. Reported from several sites in eastern and southeastern Amazonia, but probably 41 more widespread; largely restricted to terra firme (especially on sandy or nutrient-poor soils). Female more strongly barred than male on lower back, wing coverts, and tail. Otherwise note relatively plain appearance and contrast between reddish brown head and gray-brown body.
VOICE Song, generally crepuscular, a long (> 5 sec) whistle that rises slightly, sometimes becoming quavering near the end; sounds more like an insect than a bird. Br, Bo
PALE-BROWED TINAMOU Crypturellus transfasciatus 25.5 cm (10 in) Locally fairly common in dry forest of northwest, below 800 m. Occurs in forest with light 5 undergrowth but probably prefers thicker vegetation. Female more strongly barred than male on lower back and wing coverts. Cf. Andean Tinamou, with which it locally overlaps.
VOICE Song an explosive, piercing, rising “cuuEEE?” E
SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU Crypturellus parvirostris 20–25 cm (73⁄4–9⁄4 in) Fairly common but very local. Recorded from dry upper Urubamba Valley at ca. 1000 m, near Puerto 63 Maldonado (where probably spreading following widespread forest clearing), and Pampas del Heath. Found in dense, scrubby second growth of recently cleared areas, and tall grass with scattered bushes. Very small and plain. Similar to Paint-billed Crake but browner and with narrower, uniformly red bill. Also very similar to Tataupa Tinamou, but the two are not known to overlap; paler brown than Tataupa, with more brightly colored tarsi (reddish rather than purplish or gray of Tataupa), and has brown wash on crown and breast (purer gray in Tataupa).
VOICE Song, often given throughout day, but particularly in the morning, is an accelerating series of notes with a ringing quality, the song rising in pitch, then dropping sharply into churring phrases: “tu… tu… tu tu, tu, tu-tu-ti’ti’ti’ti’tur-chur-chur-chur-chur.” Daytime call is 2 or 3 ringing, quavering notes that rise, then drop in pitch, usually ending in a churr: “prjrjr-prjrr’jrrrrrrrr.” Br, Bo 7
TATAUPA TINAMOU : Crypturellus tataupa * 23 cm (9 in) Uncommon to locally common in dry northern and central intermontane valleys (Marañón, Huallaga, Chanchamayo, and Apurímac), 200–1300 m. Found in riparian thickets, undergrowth of dry forest, and (in central Peru) at edge of humid forest. Cf. Small-billed Tinamou and Paint-billed Crake (which is paler brown and has a thicker, bicolored bill).
VOICE Song, most often given in the morning, is a gruff series, accelerating in pace and descending in pitch, ending in low chatter. Call, given throughout the day, is an explosive series of notes, also with quickening pace: “Brrree, brreebre-br-br.” Quality of all vocalizations brings to mind a police whistle. E,Br,Bo
AMAZON BIRDS OPEN-HABITAT TINAMOUS
These all are tinamous of grasslands and other open hab itats. Bills decurved and relatively long (Rhynchotus,Nothoprocta) or relatively stubby (Nothura, Tinamotis).
AMAZON BIRDS :DARWIN’S NOTHURA Nothura darwinii * 26 cm (10⁄4in)Fairly common in dry gras sland above 3800 m in Titicaca Basin. Locally found at similar elevations11north to central Peru; also an isolated population at ca. 1000 m in dry middle Urubamba Valley. Notevery small size and strongly marked breast.
VOICE Song (Bolivia, Argentina) is a rap id, incessantseries of short piping whistles. Bo
AMAZON BIRDS :ORNATE TINAMOU Nothoprocta ornata * 35 cm (13⁄4in)Uncommon to locally fairly common in grassland at 3300–4400 m. Typicall y in dry sites with23scattered bushes; may prefer sloping, rocky areas with a mixture of s hrubs, b unch grasses, cushionplants, and cactus. Also found in open Polylepis scrub. Geographically variable. Southern ornata (Puno, Arequipa) is larger, paler, and browner above and has a buffier belly than branickii of centraland northern Peru. Northwestern populations (La Libertad) may average more redd ish brown (lessgray ). The most widespread grassland tinamou above 3500 m, where may overlap with the muchlarger Puna Tinamou. Smaller Andean Tinamou is found at lower elevations, lacks spotting on sidesof head, and has a spotted breast.
VOICE Call when flushed a high, plaintive, ringing “wee ’up” in aseries. Also may give (Bolivia) low cluc ks. Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS :TACZANOWSKI’S TINAMOU Nothoprocta taczanowskii 36 cm (14⁄4in)Little known and apparently rare or uncommon. Found in wet grassland, often near treeline, along 31 east slope of Andes, 2800–4000 m; also locally in mosaics of scrubby woods, remnant grassy areas,and fields in upper portions of intermontane valleys. Note large size, largely gray appearance, andlong curved bill.
VOICE Song (?) a high, rising-falling, piercing whistle: “TU’EEEEEEeer.” Bo
AMAZON BIRDS : ANDEAN TINAMOU Nothoprocta pentlandii * 28 cm (11 in)Widespre ad and often fairly common on western slopes of Andes and in inter mo ntane valleys,42000–3600 m, where found in montane scrub, including edges of Polylepis, and grassland. Alsolocally in scrub and in open undergrowth of dry forest in Andean foothills and on lomas, 200–900 m.Plumage variable. Brownest birds, with tawny underparts and longitudinal whitis h streaks onupperparts, occur in l owlands of northwest (ambigua). Other populations (including those of coastfarther south) more gray breasted; also may ha ve longitudinal whitish streaks on upperparts,alth ough some (primarily males?; not illustrated) are blacker above, with pale gray longitud inalstripes on upperparts. The most frequently encountered small tinamou on arid and semiari d slopesof Andes, below 3500 m. Cf. Ornate Tinamou (high Andes) and Pale-browed Tinamou (north -west).
VOICE Song an explosive, rising thin whistle: “tuEEE!” or “tu-tuEEE!” E, Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS : CURVE-BILLED TINAMOU Nothoprocta curvirostris * 28 cm (11 in)Uncommon and local in humid grassland with scattered shru bs at 2800–3600 m on east slope of5 Andes in northern and central Peru. Found in both short and tall grasses, near treeline, and on upperslopes of intermontane valleys, where occurs in a mosaic of grazed grassland, fields, and mont anescrub. The most common high-elev ation grassland tinamou in its range. May overlap locally withAndean Tinamou in some intermontane valleys but is slighter larger, blacker above, and tawnierand more heavily marked on breast; also note rufous on inner remiges. E
AMAZON BIRDS : RED-WINGED TINAMOU Rhynchotus rufescens * 39–42.5 cm (151⁄4–16⁄4in)
F airly common but restricted to savannas of Pampas del Heath, where it is the only large tinamou.6Frequently heard, but usually concealed by tall grass. Rufous primaries readily seen in flight.
Song, given even in heat of day, is a mournful yet pleasing series of clear whistles, the first note
longest and rising-falling, followed by 3 stuttered, falling notes: “whooEEoo, hee’hee-hoo.” Br, Bo
AMAZON BIRDS : PUNA TINAMOU Tinamotis pentlandii 4 2 cm (16⁄2in)Uncommon in dry puna above 3900 m, especially in brushy or rocky areas. More of ten seen in small 71groups than are most tinamous. Readily identified by very large size, boldly striped head, and rufousvent.
VOICE Song, usually given in chorus, is a series of musical notes, somewhat reminiscent of a wood-quail: “cuDU cuDU cuDU…” Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS : RHEA, STORKS, AND FLAMINGOS This plate is an assemblage of large, long-necked, long-legged birds. Rheas are flightless birds of dry opencountry. Storks are wading birds with long, heavy bills. They carry the neck outstretched in flight, with legstrailing behind; unlike other wading birds, they frequently soar and can ascend to great heights. Flamingosare wading birds with particularly long, graceful necks and long legs; most notable for distinctive “kinked”bill. All three species are highly gregarious, with preference for brackish or saline water. They feed by wadingin water with head held low, bill upside down and immersed; use bill to filter tiny organisms from water.Juveniles (not illustrated) of all species are brownish, with duller color to base of bill.
AMAZON BIRDS : LESSER RHEA Rhea pennata * 92–100 cm (36–39 in)Rare and local (and populations probably declining) above 4300 m in southwest. Preferred habitat
1is flat open terrain with some bogs or wetlands. Usu ally found in small groups. Takes several yearsto reach maturity. Immatures lack white feather tips of adults. Bo, Ch[MAGUARI STORK
Ciconia maguari]110 c m (43 in)Very rare vagrant to southeast; reported, as singles or pairs, both in lowlands of Madre de Dios and(photographed) at 3650 m in Andes. Found in open country, usually near marshes or wet grasslands.Similar to Wood Stork, but note feat hered (not bare) neck and head, reddish tarsi, and more colorfulfacial skin; also has more exten sive black on wing coverts and lower back (more visible on ground
than in flight). Co, Br, Bo
AMAZON BIRDS :WOOD STORK Mycteria americana 89–101.5 cm (35–40 in)Most widespread stork. Uncommon in Amazonia, where fo und in marshes and along rivers; also rare2 in similar habitats in northwest. Rare vagrant (primarily juveniles) to Andes and central andsouthern coast. Often gregarious and may form small flocks. Readily re cognized by large size, barehead and neck, and white body with contrasting black r emiges. Bill of juvenile is yellow oryellowish, and head may be partially feathered. Co, E, Br, Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS _ JABIRU Jabiru mycteria 127–150 cm (50–59 in)Rare but widespread in central and southern Amazonia; ve ry scarce or absent from north. Also a 3very rare vagrant to Andes and coast. Imm ense, essentially all-white bird with bare black head; atclose range, note bare reddish lower neck. Juvenile is brownish gray, with duller skin colors; headand neck also may be feathered. Plumage progress ively whiter with age. May be seen as singles orpairs on banks of large rivers, but perhaps most often detected when soaring high overhead. Co, E,Br, Bo4
AMAZON BIRDS : JAMES’S FLAMINGO Phoenicoparrus jamesi 90 cm (35 in)
Nonbreeding visitor to south, congregating at Salinas (4300 m); very rare vagrant to coast and to
Amazonia. Smallest flamingo, with least amount of black on bill. Tarsi of adult entirely red.Immature much duller but identifiable by size, reduced black on bill, and yellowish base to bill
(shared with Andean).
VOICE Calls higher and more screechy than calls of Chilean Flamingo. Bo,Ch
AMAZON BIRDS :ANDEAN FLAMINGO Phoenicoparrus andinus 110 cm (43 in)Rarest of the th ree flamingos. Nonbreeding visitor to southwest, where congregates at Salinas 5(4300 m); up to several hundred may be present, but typically outn umbered by the two other species.Adult readily recognized by yellow tarsi, more prominently black rear body, and more black on wings(extending onto tertials); also has more extensively black bill than James’s. Immature similar toChilean; at close range, note yellowish (not pink) base to bill and dark (not pale) iris. Br, Bo, Ch
AMAZON BIRDS : CHILEAN FLAMINGO
Phoenicopterus chilensis 95–105 cm (37–41 in)The most widespread flamingo. Breeds very locally in Andes. More wide spread as nonbreeding 6visitor in Andes at 3200–4600 m and on coast; often found on freshwater lakes (unlike otherflamingos). Adult readily recognized by reddish “knees” contr asting with blue-gray tarsi, and pinkishbase to bill. Long pink plumes often cover black in wing when at rest. Immature lacks pink or red;see Andean and James’s flamingos.
VOICE Calls low grunts and gravelly, multisyllabic honks. E, Br,Bo, Ch
End of the services of Amazon Birds - Birds of Peru Amazon Habitat Tinamous.